AA20-182A: EINSTEIN Data Trends – 30-day Lookback

Cybersecurity and Infrastructure Security Agency (CISA) analysts have compiled the top detection signatures that have been the most active over the month of May in our national Intrusion Detection System (IDS), known as EINSTEIN. This information is meant to give the reader a closer look into what analysts are seeing at the national level and provide technical details on some of the most active threats.

IDS is a network tool that uses sensors to monitor inbound and outbound traffic to search for any type of suspicious activity or known threats, alerting analysts when a specific traffic pattern matches with an associated threat. IDS allows users to deploy signatures on these boundary sensors to look for the specific pattern, or network indicator, associated with a known threat.

The EINSTEIN Program is an automated process for collecting, correlating, analyzing, and sharing computer security information across the federal civilian government. By collecting information from participating federal government agencies, CISA builds and enhances our Nation’s cyber-related situational awareness.

The signatures CISA created have been included below for analysts across various organizations to use in enhancing their own network defenses. Note: CISA has created and tested these signatures in an environment that might not be the same for all organizations, so administrators may need to make changes or updates before using in the following signatures in their local environments.

Note: the below Snort signatures accounted for over 90 percent of what CISA analysts identified as potential threats using the IDS system for detection.

1. NetSupport Manager RAT


The NetSupport Manager Remote Access Tool (RAT) is a legitimate program that, once installed on a victim’s machine, allows remote administrative control. In a malicious context, it can—among many other functions—be used to steal information. Malicious RATs can be difficult to detect because they do not normally appear in lists of running programs, and they can mimic the behavior of legitimate applications.


In January 2020, Palo Alto researchers observed the abuse of NetSupport in targeted phishing email campaigns.[1] In November 2019, Zscaler researchers observed “software update-themed” campaigns tricking users into installing a malicious NetSupport Manager RAT.[2] The earliest malicious use of NetSupport was seen in a phishing email campaign—reported by FireEye researchers in April 2018.[3]

Snort Signature

alert tcp any any -> any $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"NetSupportManager:HTTP Client Header contains 'User-Agent|3a 20|NetSupport Manager/'"; flow:established,to_server; flowbits:isnotset,.tagged; content:"User-Agent|3a 20|NetSupport Manager/"; http_header; fast_pattern:only; content:"CMD="; nocase; http_client_body; depth:4; content:"POST"; nocase; http_method; flowbits:set,.; classtype:http-header; reference:url,unit42.paloaltonetworks.com/cortex-xdr-detects-netsupport-manager-rat-campaign/; reference:url,www.pentestpartners.com/security-blog/how-to-reverse-engineer-a-protocol/; reference:url,github.com/silence-is-best/c2db;

2. Kovter


Kovter is a fileless Trojan with several variants. This malware started as ransomware that malicious actors used to trick victims into thinking that they need to pay their local police a fine. Cyber actors have also used Kovter to perform click-fraud operations to infect targets and send stolen information from the target machines to command and control servers. Kovter’s evolving features have allowed this malware to rank among the Center for Internet Security’s most prolific malware year after year.[4] See CISA’s Webinar on Combatting Ransomware for additional information on Kovter.

Snort Signature

alert tcp any any -> any $HTTP_PORTS (msg:"Kovter:HTTP URI POST to CnC Server";; flow:established,to_server; flowbits:isnotset,.tagged; content:"POST / HTTP/1.1"; depth:15; content:"Content-Type|3a 20|application/x-www-form-urlencoded"; http_header; depth:47; fast_pattern; content:"User-Agent|3a 20|Mozilla/"; http_header; content:!"LOADCURRENCY"; nocase; content:!"Accept"; http_header; content:!"Referer|3a|"; http_header; content:!"Cookie|3a|"; nocase; http_header; pcre:"/^(?:[A-Za-z0-9+\/]{4})*(?:[A-Za-z0-9+\/]{2}==|[A-Za-z0-9+\/]{3}=|[A-Za-z0-9+\/]{4})$/P"; pcre:"/User-Agent\x3a[^\r\n]+\r\nHost\x3a\x20(?:\d{1,3}\.){3}\d{1,3}\r\nContent-Length\x3a\x20[1-5][0-9]{2,3}\r\n(?:Cache-Control|Pragma)\x3a[^\r\n]+\r\n(?:\r\n)?$/H";; classtype:nonstd-tcp;; reference:url,www.malware-traffic-analysis.net/2017/06/29/index2.html;

3. XMRig


XMRig is a type of cryptocurrency miner that uses the resources of an unsuspecting infected machine to mine Monero—a type of cryptocurrency. XMRig can cause a victim computer to overheat and perform poorly by using additional system resources that would otherwise not be active.

Snort Signature

alert tcp any any -> any !25 (msg:"XMRIG:Non-Std TCP Client Traffic contains JSONRPC 2.0 Config Data";; flow:established,to_server; flowbits:isnotset; content:"|22|jsonrpc|22 3a 22|2.0|22|"; distance:0; content:"|22|method|22 3a 22|login|22|"; distance:0; content:"|22|agent|22 3a 22|XMRig"; nocase; distance:0; fast_pattern; content:"libuv/"; nocase; distance:0; content:!"|22|login|22 3a 22|x|22|"; flowbits:set,; classtype:nonstd-tcp;; reference:url,malware-traffic-analysis.net/2017/11/12/index.html; reference:url,www.mysonicwall.com/sonicalert/searchresults.aspx?ev=article&id=1101;